, family members violence, exposure to substance use and housing instability in early
Participants recognize gambling through their youth as a implies of escaping painful memories; to feel the rush and the "adrenalin," feel "exhilarated" and "keep my mind off other worries I was getting in my life". These findings are constant with preliminary research reporting that adverse childhood life events are connected with gambling behaviours amongst youth [27,28]. Hence, the guys within this study gambled as youth to cope with painful and tough situations. Our final results highlight the degree to which these men's households were not normally in a position to meet their financial, social, and emotional requirements. Households may perhaps lack material sources and/or be internally dysfunctional (e.g., parental substance abuse, domestic violence). Consequently, youth may be exposedInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Well being 2016, 13,12 ofto gambling activity within [35,49] and outside the loved ones unit [50,51]. This, coupled with exposure to tough family environments, contributes to increased threat of problem gambling. Mark, for example described the inability of social service agencies to help keep his family members intact and Nolan's mother could not cope with his early criminality and asked him to leave, consequently he became homeless. We located that exposure to street culture and the formation of street social networks contributed to early gambling. One example is, Steve described how, within the title= ejsp.2064 absence of responsible adults, he had "no choice" but to join within the deviant behaviour of adults in his title= 02699931.2015.1049516 network (e.g., gambling and substance use). Equivalent to other people, our findings suggest that homelessness may possibly be a pathway into street cultures that GSK2334470 custom synthesis expose youth to maladaptive behaviour (see Chamberlain and Johnson ). Our findings point for the require for further study around the connection among lack of household cohesion/supervision, entry into homelessness or precarious housing and how youth come to be involved with adult peer groups that model and enable gambling behaviour. For youth who are homeless, gambling functions as a mechanism to assistance oneself and to cope with trauma. Nolan used gambling to keep his "mind off worries" which includes housing problems. Elliot saw gambling as a skill-based activity to assistance himself although living on his personal for the duration of high college. Inside the only other study of gambling amongst homeless youth, Dufour, Roy, Boivin, Boudreau and Robert  recommended that youth in precarious living conditions might turn to gambling to assistance themselves when sources are scarce . As Robinson  argues, inhabitation itself creates grief and trauma. The knowledge of getting displaced or the encounter of abusive past dwelling environments creates remarkable trauma that youth carry with them all through their lives; some youth will turn to substance use to cope with this grief and trauma ., household violence, exposure to substance use and housing instability in early life may well set the stage for adult issue gambling. The entrenchment of gambling as a coping mechanism in youth puts males at threat of issue gambling in adulthood. Towards the very best of our expertise, the present study is the very first to describe men's experiences of early adversity and traumatic events as they relate to problem gambling in youth and its persistence into adulthood. The five case studies reveal that participants lived in environments of neglect and abuse in the course of their youth.